Women's Health Bulletin Women's Health Bulletin Women's Health Bull http://www.womenshealthbulletin.portal.tools 2345-5136 2382-9990 10.5812/whb. en jalali 2021 3 1 gregorian 2021 3 1 2 2
en 10.17795/whb-25227 The Comparison of Coping Strategies With Stress and Marital Satisfaction in Women on the Basis of Infertility Factor The Comparison of Coping Strategies With Stress and Marital Satisfaction in Women on the Basis of Infertility Factor research-article research-article Results

Data analysis showed that coping strategies and marital satisfaction were different in the two groups of participants based on their infertility factors. The women with female infertility factor used more "emotion- focused" and "less useful coping strategies" than the women with male infertility factor (P < 0.001). The women with male infertility factor had significantly more marital satisfaction than their infertile counterparts (P = 0.019).

Conclusions

The results provided useful evidence about the types of coping strategies in infertile women. Also considering infertility factor, a significant relationship was found between the type of coping strategies and marital satisfaction in infertile couples.

Materials and Methods

The sample group included 50 women with female infertility factor and 50 women with male infertility factor. The participants contacted upon their treatment course with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in Mehr infertility clinic, Tehran, Iran. Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire and standard scale for measuring coping strategies were used during this study.

Background

Nowadays infertility issue has become a social concern and is associated with numerous social and psychological problems. Infertility can influence interpersonal, marital and social relationships.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strategies regarding stress and the level of marital satisfaction in infertile women associated with their infertility factors and to obtain the relationship between these two variables.

Results

Data analysis showed that coping strategies and marital satisfaction were different in the two groups of participants based on their infertility factors. The women with female infertility factor used more "emotion- focused" and "less useful coping strategies" than the women with male infertility factor (P < 0.001). The women with male infertility factor had significantly more marital satisfaction than their infertile counterparts (P = 0.019).

Conclusions

The results provided useful evidence about the types of coping strategies in infertile women. Also considering infertility factor, a significant relationship was found between the type of coping strategies and marital satisfaction in infertile couples.

Materials and Methods

The sample group included 50 women with female infertility factor and 50 women with male infertility factor. The participants contacted upon their treatment course with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in Mehr infertility clinic, Tehran, Iran. Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire and standard scale for measuring coping strategies were used during this study.

Background

Nowadays infertility issue has become a social concern and is associated with numerous social and psychological problems. Infertility can influence interpersonal, marital and social relationships.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strategies regarding stress and the level of marital satisfaction in infertile women associated with their infertility factors and to obtain the relationship between these two variables.

Adaptation, Psychological;Stress;Infertility;Personal Satisfaction Adaptation, Psychological;Stress;Infertility;Personal Satisfaction http://www.womenshealthbulletin.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=25227 Fatemeh Jafarzadeh Fatemeh Jafarzadeh Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran Mahmood Golzari Mahmood Golzari Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran Farhad Jomehri Farhad Jomehri Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran Seyedeh Leyla Poursamar Seyedeh Leyla Poursamar Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122401651 Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University (ATU), Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122401651 Kimia Sahraian Kimia Sahraian Department of Psychology, Jahrom Medical University, Jahrom, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Jahrom Medical University, Jahrom, IR Iran
en 10.17795/whb-24973 The Reduction of Maternal Milk Proteins in Mothers Exposed to Passive Smoking: A Prospective Cohort Study The Reduction of Maternal Milk Proteins in Mothers Exposed to Passive Smoking: A Prospective Cohort Study brief-report brief-report Patients and Methods

This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers exposed to second-hand smoke (cases) and 45 non-exposed post-partum mothers (controls) who attended health care centers. Milk samples were collected twice, (5-7 days and 4 months after delivery). Exposure was assessed through questionnaires which measured total levels of milk protein and albumin, and milk cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine.

Background

The number of cigarette smokers in people of all ages and the resulting second hand smokers are increasing worldwide. Smoking at home, work or in public places puts others at risk of exposure to second hand smoke.

Conclusions

Second-hand smoke affects the levels of breast milk proteins that are essential for infant growth.

Results

Cotinine levels in the breast milk of mothers in the exposed group were significantly higher than non-exposed group at baseline and 4 months after delivery (P = 0.001). Milk protein profiles in the non-exposed group were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group, but the albumin profile was not significantly different at 4 months post-partum (P = 0.004).

Objectives

To study the effects of second-hand smoking on breast milk proteins.

Patients and Methods

This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers exposed to second-hand smoke (cases) and 45 non-exposed post-partum mothers (controls) who attended health care centers. Milk samples were collected twice, (5-7 days and 4 months after delivery). Exposure was assessed through questionnaires which measured total levels of milk protein and albumin, and milk cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine.

Background

The number of cigarette smokers in people of all ages and the resulting second hand smokers are increasing worldwide. Smoking at home, work or in public places puts others at risk of exposure to second hand smoke.

Conclusions

Second-hand smoke affects the levels of breast milk proteins that are essential for infant growth.

Results

Cotinine levels in the breast milk of mothers in the exposed group were significantly higher than non-exposed group at baseline and 4 months after delivery (P = 0.001). Milk protein profiles in the non-exposed group were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group, but the albumin profile was not significantly different at 4 months post-partum (P = 0.004).

Objectives

To study the effects of second-hand smoking on breast milk proteins.

Second Hand Smoke;Breast Feeding;Milk Proteins Second Hand Smoke;Breast Feeding;Milk Proteins http://www.womenshealthbulletin.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=24973 Azar Shamsi Azar Shamsi Department of Maternal and Child Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Maternal and Child Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121855437, Fax: +98-2188991694 Department of Maternal and Child Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Maternal and Child Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121855437, Fax: +98-2188991694 Azam Baheiraei Azam Baheiraei Department of Reproductive Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Reproductive Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Shahnaz Khaghani Shahnaz Khaghani Department of Medicine, Biochemistry Division, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medicine, Biochemistry Division, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Afshin Mohsenifar Afshin Mohsenifar Department of Toxicology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Toxicology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Anoshirvan Kazemnejad Anoshirvan Kazemnejad Department of Biostatistics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/whb-26864 Air Pollution Impacts on Women’s Health Air Pollution Impacts on Women’s Health editorial editorial Environmental Exposure;Air Pollution, Indoor;Women’s Health Environmental Exposure;Air Pollution, Indoor;Women’s Health http://www.womenshealthbulletin.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=26864 Mohammad Ali Baghapour Mohammad Ali Baghapour School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/whb-23248 Cancer-Related Self-Efficacy in Iranian Women With Breast Cancer Cancer-Related Self-Efficacy in Iranian Women With Breast Cancer research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the results obtained, it is necessary to consider the level of education, social support, and the time of cancer diagnosis in order to assess the self-efficacy in Iranian women with breast cancer.

Results

The sustained cancer-related positive attitude had, in total, the highest mean score of 7 subscales of cancer behavior inventory and the seeking of social support had the least mean score. Only Patient’s education and the time of cancer diagnosis were associated with self-efficacy of Iranian women in relation to cancer.

Background

Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific achievement. Past studies have shown probable increases in self-efficacy with growing age. Iranian women with breast cancer are one decade younger than their western counterparts.

Objectives

The present study aims to investigate the level of cancer-related self-efficacy in Iranian women, and its demographic and medical predictors.

Patients and Methods

This is a descriptive cross-sectional study comprised of 91 breast cancer patients referring for chemotherapy to one of the largest oncology centers in northwest of Iran. The patients’ demographic and medical characteristics were determined and their cancer related self-efficacy was assessed using cancer behavior inventory containing 33 items. Data analysis was completed using SPSS software version 13. Descriptive and Regression analysis were used to describe demographic and medical characteristics of the patients and their predictors of cancer-related self-efficacy.

Conclusions

According to the results obtained, it is necessary to consider the level of education, social support, and the time of cancer diagnosis in order to assess the self-efficacy in Iranian women with breast cancer.

Results

The sustained cancer-related positive attitude had, in total, the highest mean score of 7 subscales of cancer behavior inventory and the seeking of social support had the least mean score. Only Patient’s education and the time of cancer diagnosis were associated with self-efficacy of Iranian women in relation to cancer.

Background

Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific achievement. Past studies have shown probable increases in self-efficacy with growing age. Iranian women with breast cancer are one decade younger than their western counterparts.

Objectives

The present study aims to investigate the level of cancer-related self-efficacy in Iranian women, and its demographic and medical predictors.

Patients and Methods

This is a descriptive cross-sectional study comprised of 91 breast cancer patients referring for chemotherapy to one of the largest oncology centers in northwest of Iran. The patients’ demographic and medical characteristics were determined and their cancer related self-efficacy was assessed using cancer behavior inventory containing 33 items. Data analysis was completed using SPSS software version 13. Descriptive and Regression analysis were used to describe demographic and medical characteristics of the patients and their predictors of cancer-related self-efficacy.

Breast Cancer;Self-Efficacy;Women Breast Cancer;Self-Efficacy;Women http://www.womenshealthbulletin.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=23248 Zahra Kochaki Nejad Zahra Kochaki Nejad Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4114797713, Fax: +98-4114796969 Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4114797713, Fax: +98-4114796969 Alireza Mohajjel Aghdam Alireza Mohajjel Aghdam Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Hadi Hassankhani Hadi Hassankhani Faculty of Nursing, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Faculty of Nursing, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Zohreh Sanaat Zohreh Sanaat Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/whb-23092 Prenatal and Maternal Outcomes in Advanced Maternal Age, a Comparative Study Prenatal and Maternal Outcomes in Advanced Maternal Age, a Comparative Study research-article research-article Background

The increased maternal age is associated with many prenatal and perinatal complications including stillbirth, preterm birth and cesarean delivery.

Conclusions

Women should be alerted by the higher risks for prenatal and maternal morbidity associated with delayed pregnancy. Health care providers should be aware of the impact of delayed childbearing on the health care resources.

Results

The mean age of 978 mothers < 35 years-old and 984 of those aged ≥ 35 years was 31.6 ± 6.8 years. Mothers aged ≥ 35 years experienced higher risk of preeclampsia (P < 0.001), gestational diabetes mellitus (P < 0.001), placental abruption (P = 0.003), cesarean delivery (P < 0.001), low Apgar at 1 minute (P = 0.001) and low Apgar at 5 minutes (P = 0.001) compared to those aged less than 35 years.

Objectives

This study was carried out to investigate the prenatal and maternal outcomes among mothers older and younger than 35 in Fars province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

This study included 1962 singleton deliveries. The prenatal and neonatal outcomes were recorded retrospectively and compared between mothers aged older and younger than 35 years. A designed questionnaire was used for data collection of parity, gravida (gravidity and parity are two terms that refer to the number of times a female has been pregnant and carried the pregnancies to a viable gestational age), outcomes of the pregnancy, labor, and neonatal outcome. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 15, and the P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Background

The increased maternal age is associated with many prenatal and perinatal complications including stillbirth, preterm birth and cesarean delivery.

Conclusions

Women should be alerted by the higher risks for prenatal and maternal morbidity associated with delayed pregnancy. Health care providers should be aware of the impact of delayed childbearing on the health care resources.

Results

The mean age of 978 mothers < 35 years-old and 984 of those aged ≥ 35 years was 31.6 ± 6.8 years. Mothers aged ≥ 35 years experienced higher risk of preeclampsia (P < 0.001), gestational diabetes mellitus (P < 0.001), placental abruption (P = 0.003), cesarean delivery (P < 0.001), low Apgar at 1 minute (P = 0.001) and low Apgar at 5 minutes (P = 0.001) compared to those aged less than 35 years.

Objectives

This study was carried out to investigate the prenatal and maternal outcomes among mothers older and younger than 35 in Fars province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

This study included 1962 singleton deliveries. The prenatal and neonatal outcomes were recorded retrospectively and compared between mothers aged older and younger than 35 years. A designed questionnaire was used for data collection of parity, gravida (gravidity and parity are two terms that refer to the number of times a female has been pregnant and carried the pregnancies to a viable gestational age), outcomes of the pregnancy, labor, and neonatal outcome. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 15, and the P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Prenatal;Pregnancy;Neonatal Prenatal;Pregnancy;Neonatal http://www.womenshealthbulletin.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=23092 Maryam Yazdani Maryam Yazdani Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Elnaz Amirshahi Elnaz Amirshahi School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Aria Shakeri Aria Shakeri Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Reza Amirshahi Reza Amirshahi School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Leila Malekmakan Leila Malekmakan Shiraz Nephro-Urology Research Center, Department of Community Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Shiraz Nephro-Urology Research Center, Department of Community Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-7112127300 Shiraz Nephro-Urology Research Center, Department of Community Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Shiraz Nephro-Urology Research Center, Department of Community Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-7112127300
en 10.17795/whb-28194 Shifting Paradigms in Women’s Health Care: From Informed Consent to Informed Choice Shifting Paradigms in Women’s Health Care: From Informed Consent to Informed Choice review-article review-article Conclusions

This paper reviews the necessary criteria for informed choice to be attentive to the individual needs of women. Using the model of midwifery in Canada as an example, this paper demonstrates how feminist approaches to informed choice should be preferred in modern health care settings.

Results

As a result of a paradigm shift in health care and ethics, favoring autonomy over other principles-informed consent evolved to the more patient-centered concept of informed choice. Even so, feminist bioethicists critique the mainstream model of informed choice as being inattentive to inherent power dynamics within health care and society which may influence decision making. Drawing on the model of midwifery in Canada, this paper outlines an approach to health care that incorporates feminist definitions of informed choice.

Context

This article discusses the paradigm shift in health care and bioethics from the concept of informed consent to informed choice.

Evidence Acquisition

Informed consent is linked to the concept of respect for autonomy-one of the four pillars of bioethics. This concept requires health care givers to share information with patients so they can make appropriate health care decisions. However, the concept of informed consent has been critiqued as being paternalistic and not attentive to the complexities of modern health care decisions.

Conclusions

This paper reviews the necessary criteria for informed choice to be attentive to the individual needs of women. Using the model of midwifery in Canada as an example, this paper demonstrates how feminist approaches to informed choice should be preferred in modern health care settings.

Results

As a result of a paradigm shift in health care and ethics, favoring autonomy over other principles-informed consent evolved to the more patient-centered concept of informed choice. Even so, feminist bioethicists critique the mainstream model of informed choice as being inattentive to inherent power dynamics within health care and society which may influence decision making. Drawing on the model of midwifery in Canada, this paper outlines an approach to health care that incorporates feminist definitions of informed choice.

Context

This article discusses the paradigm shift in health care and bioethics from the concept of informed consent to informed choice.

Evidence Acquisition

Informed consent is linked to the concept of respect for autonomy-one of the four pillars of bioethics. This concept requires health care givers to share information with patients so they can make appropriate health care decisions. However, the concept of informed consent has been critiqued as being paternalistic and not attentive to the complexities of modern health care decisions.

Women’s Health;Informed Consent;Personal Autonomy;Bioethics;Midwifery;Feminism;Canada Women’s Health;Informed Consent;Personal Autonomy;Bioethics;Midwifery;Feminism;Canada http://www.womenshealthbulletin.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=28194 Manavi Handa Manavi Handa Department of Midwifery, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada; Department of Midwifery, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada. Tel: +1-4169797684 Department of Midwifery, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada; Department of Midwifery, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada. Tel: +1-4169797684 Mary Donovan Sharpe Mary Donovan Sharpe Department of Midwifery, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada Department of Midwifery, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada